Economic geography

Advances in understanding, theory and measurement must necessarily proceed hand in hand. A companion article in this publication sets forth the urgent need for new theory in economics. This article sets forth the complementary need for new measures. The stakes are high and the choice is ours. The challenge is to derive more appropriate indicators to reflect real, sustainable economic welfare, social development and human wellbeing. The attributes that have made GDP so successful are often overlooked — it provides clear objectives for policy and decision-making. The index is applied to assess the economic performance of select countries from Tools and Measures Human beings are distinguished from other life forms by their unique ability to fashion tools which extend our powers of consciousness beyond the reach of our senses and our powers of execution beyond the limits of strength, endurance, space and time imposed by our physical bodies.

Indicators of Economic Progress: The Power of Measurement and Human Welfare

General considerations Distinctions between relative-age and absolute-age measurements Local relationships on a single outcrop or archaeological site can often be interpreted to deduce the sequence in which the materials were assembled. This then can be used to deduce the sequence of events and processes that took place or the history of that brief period of time as recorded in the rocks or soil.

For example, the presence of recycled bricks at an archaeological site indicates the sequence in which the structures were built. Similarly, in geology, if distinctive granitic pebbles can be found in the sediment beside a similar granitic body, it can be inferred that the granite, after cooling, had been uplifted and eroded and therefore was not injected into the adjacent rock sequence.

Although with clever detective work many complex time sequences or relative ages can be deduced, the ability to show that objects at two separated sites were formed at the same time requires additional information. A coin, vessel, or other common artifact could link two archaeological sites, but the possibility of recycling would have to be considered.

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Program members also study the effects of monetary and fiscal policy on economic performance. One ongoing activity of this program is the Business Dating Committee, which is the official arbiter of the beginning and end of recessions and expansions. It has been my honor to serve as its director from its founding, 32 years ago. As I write, many eyes are on the program’s Business Cycle Dating Committee, which I also chair, as evidence grows that the recession that began in December may have come to an end recently or is about to come to an end.

The following graph shows the two main indicators the committee considers in deciding on the dates of turning points in economic activity, real GDP and payroll employment: Figure Both measures are stated as indexes that reached 1. That month was the exact peak of employment, but real GDP reached a slightly higher value in the second quarter of Both measures plunged in late as the financial crisis took hold.

Real GDP began to grow in the summer of but employment continued to decline. The percentage drop in employment in the current recession was the largest since the government began the collection of the data in , although not nearly as large as the decline in the Great Depression in to , according to annual data from earlier sources.

The huge difference between the recent behavior of output and employment reflects the unprecedented growth of productivity in In determining the date for the trough in economic activity, the committee will be deciding how to weigh output and employment in its definition of economic activity. At recent Program Meetings, the papers have included two on the effects of the small probability of large disasters: Each group has two or three leaders, who determine the membership of the group and its methods of operation, timing of its meetings, and content of its programs.

The Hidden Economics of Online Dating

Etymology[ edit ] Originally, political economy meant the study of the conditions under which production or consumption within limited parameters was organized in nation-states. In that way, political economy expanded the emphasis of economics, which comes from the Greek oikos meaning “home” and nomos meaning “law” or “order”. Political economy was thus meant to express the laws of production of wealth at the state level, just as economics was the ordering of the home.

The French physiocrats were the first exponents of political economy, although the intellectual responses of Adam Smith John Stuart Mill , David Ricardo , Henry George and Karl Marx to the physiocrats generally receives much greater attention.

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Presidential speech writer Samuel Rosenman wrote: The philosophy that had prevailed in Washington since , that the object of government was to provide prosperity for those who lived and worked at the top of the economic pyramid, in the belief that prosperity would trickle down to the bottom of the heap and benefit all. The Merriam-Webster Dictionary notes that the first known use of trickle-down as an adjective meaning “relating to or working on the principle of trickle-down theory” was in , [14] while the first known use of trickle-down theory was in Johnson , a Democrat, alleged “Republicans [ They’re so busy operating the trickle-down theory, giving the richest corporations the biggest break, that the whole thing goes to hell in a handbasket”.

President, the trickle-down theory attributed to the Republican Party has never been articulated by President Reagan and has never been articulated by President Bush and has never been advocated by either one of them. One might argue whether trickle down makes any sense or not. To attribute to people who have advocated the opposite in policies is not only inaccurate but poisons the debate on public issues”. David Stockman has said that supply-side economics was merely a cover for the trickle-down approach to economic policy—what an older and less elegant generation called the horse-and-sparrow theory: What I want you to understand is the national debt is not the only cause of [declining economic conditions in America].

It is because America has not invested in its people.

Southern Economic Association

Neoclassical location theorists , following in the tradition of Alfred Weber , tend to focus on industrial location and use quantitative methods. Since the s, two broad reactions against neoclassical approaches have significantly changed the discipline: Marxist political economy, growing out of the work of David Harvey ; and the new economic geography which takes into account social, cultural, and institutional factors in the spatial economy. Economists such as Paul Krugman and Jeffrey Sachs have also analyzed many traits related to economic geography.

Krugman called his application of spatial thinking to international trade theory the “new economic geography”, which directly competes with an approach within the discipline of geography that is also called “new economic geography”. Ancient writings can be attributed to the Greek geographer Strabo ‘s Geographika compiled almost years ago.

Author and economist William Nicholson, overwhelmed by the heady combination of numbers and a desire for a relationship, started to notice similarities between economic theories and the dating world.

Can economic theory work for dating? But could financial rules be more suited to dating than we might think? Rebecca May AskMen March 12, A new book, The Romantic Economist, proposes that unlikely argument. Author and economist William Nicholson, overwhelmed by the heady combination of numbers and a desire for a relationship, started to notice similarities between economic theories and the dating world.

And so he set about applying them to real life. The idea of any sort of steps to dating certainly seems dubious. It means taking the most suggestible, emotional feeling we can have and applying the rules of one of the most black-and-white, clinical professions imaginable bar medicine, obviously.

Episode 513: Dear Economist, I Need A Date

He identifies himself as a realist, but strongly believes in the need for novel approaches. Firstly, talking about whether the rise of China will result in a world war, my argument is very clear: Nuclear weapons prevent nuclear powers from going to war against each other, because that would lead to the total destruction of the human species.

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Sorry, the browser you are using is not supported. For the best experience, we recommend using one of the following browsers: The Southern Economic Journal began publication in and is the eighth oldest American scholarly journal in economics. From its founding, the purpose of the Southern Economic Association has been to further the education of scholars and the public in economic affairs. Toward this end, it seeks to stimulate interest in and disseminate results of recent research in theory and applied economics.

The membership of the Southern Economic Association includes a diverse set of scholars, with a great range in their substantive interests and in their methods of inquiry. The annual conference and the Journal welcome submissions from all fields of economic research and from economists around the world.

One frequently-asked question is: What is Southern about the Southern Economic Association? Certainly, the annual conference is always held in a Southern location. Most of the editors of the Journal work at Southern institutions. Early conferences and Journal volumes featured many articles about the economic problems of the South.

The Economic Fluctuations and Growth Program

ShareCompartir The ultimate goal is to stop violence before it begins. Prevention requires understanding the factors that influence violence. CDC uses a four-level social-ecological model to better understand violence and the effect of potential prevention strategies. It allows us to understand the range of factors that put people at risk for violence or protect them from experiencing or perpetrating violence.

Jan 29,  · Episode Dear Economist, I Need A Date: Planet Money On today’s show, economist and author, Tim Harford, applies economic theory to .

Proudhon was the primary proponent of anarchist mutualism, and influenced many later individualist anarchist and social anarchist thinkers. As a term, “mutualism” has seen a variety of related uses. Charles Fourier first used the French term mutualisme in , [16] although the reference was not to an economic system. French origins[ edit ] Pierre-Joseph Proudhon was involved with the Lyons mutualists and later adopted the name to describe his own teachings.

Greene , in , used the term “mutualism” to describe a mutual credit system similar to that of Proudhon. Greene, Pierre Leroux , and others. During the Second French Republic — , Proudhon had his biggest public effect through his involvement with four newspapers: His polemical writing style, combined with his perception of himself as a political outsider, produced a cynical, combative journalism that appealed to many French workers but alienated others.

He repeatedly criticised the government’s policies and promoted reformation of credit and exchange. He tried to establish a popular bank Banque du peuple early in , but despite over 13, people signing up mostly workers , receipts were limited falling short of 18, FF and the whole enterprise was essentially stillborn. He was successful in the complementary elections of June 4 and served as a deputy during the debates over the National Workshops , created by the February 25, decree passed by Republican Louis Blanc.

The workshops were to give work to the unemployed.

Trickle-down economics

Acknowledgements Introduction his document discusses the way radiometric dating and stratigraphic principles are used to establish the conventional geological time scale. It is not about the theory behind radiometric dating methods, it is about their application, and it therefore assumes the reader has some familiarity with the technique already refer to “Other Sources” for more information. As an example of how they are used, radiometric dates from geologically simple, fossiliferous Cretaceous rocks in western North America are compared to the geological time scale.

To get to that point, there is also a historical discussion and description of non-radiometric dating methods. A common form of criticism is to cite geologically complicated situations where the application of radiometric dating is very challenging.

Get Full Text in PDF. Table of Contents. Introduction; Tools and Measures; Measures of National Income; Need for New Theory; Measures and Indicators; Characteristics of a Successful Indicator.

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How Nash Equilibrium Changed Economics

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